WHAT IS A PROBIOTIC?
Probiotics are cultures with one or more species of viable microorganisms that produce beneficial effects for the host's health when given in the recommended dose (FAO/WHO 2001). Different species and various strains of microorganisms are commercially available as probiotics, either as a single strain product or with multiple species. It is important to stress that the ideal probiotic is not pathogenic for the host, is species-specific and able to cross the gastric juice acid environment to reach the intestine, where the host will obtain the probiotic positive effects.
WHAT IS A COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRODUCT?
Competitive Exclusion (CE) is the terminology used to describe the protective effects promoted by the natural or native intestinal microbiota, limiting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, particularly the Salmonella spp. genus (OIE 2010). In this way, CE products are formed by a pool of intestinal non-pathogenic microorganisms, obtained from healthy adult birds, and can include hundreds of different bacterial species.
HOW ARE THE COLOSTRUM® LINE PROBIOTICS PRODUCED?
Specific master seeds are the starting point for each probiotic type. They go through a fermentation process according to each group of microorganisms to be cultured. Probiotics for use in feed (DFM or NAGF) are coated with three layers of polymers. These layers are strongly adhered to the microorganisms, protecting them against the proventriculus acid environment and favoring their release in the middle third of the GI tract. The coating makes the microorganisms more thermo-resistant to the feed pelleting process.
WHAT IS THE MODE OF ACTION OF CE PRODUCTS AND PROBIOTICS AND WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS RELATED TO THEIR USE?
- Production of organic acids, bacteriocins and other substances;
- Complex molecules ingested by the bird are broken down by the bird, favoring digestion and utilization;
- Production of vitamins;
- Competition with pathogenic bacteria for space and adhesion sites in the gut
- Competition with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients. Probiotic bacteria do not compete for nutrients with the bird; they use nutrients with low availability or that are unavailable for the bird, such as the non-starch polysaccharides – that interfere negatively on the bird’s production performance;
- The immune function of the intestine is improved, as it contains a large amount of lymphoid tissue (GALT);
- Intestinal health is improved as the villi height and crypts depth are increased;
- Presence of pathogenic bacteria (especially Salmonella spp.) is reduced;
- Performance is improved by weight gain increase and feed conversion and mortality reduction.
HOW IMPORTANT IS IT TO USE A PROBIOTIC THAT IS SPECIFIC FOR POULTRY?
In nature, when chicks are born under the hen, bacteria from the healthy adult bird are released in the feces and ingested by the chick, acting as a natural inoculum and providing a microbiota similar to that of the mother. Probiotics are given to mimic the natural contamination as soon as possible, taking into account that the ratios between the different bacteria lineages are highly complex and depend on a specific interaction between them and the host. It is more advantageous to use microbiota obtained from birds in the same species, as it is extremely similar to natural conditions (Cisek & Binek, 2014; Ribet & Cossart, 2015).
HOW CAN CE PRODUCTS AND PROBIOTICS BE ADMINISTERED?
The most common routes of administration are: spray (hatchery), drinking water (farm), ready feed (mini pellets) and feed. Another possibility is in ovo inoculation on the 18th day of incubation, in association with the vaccines for viral infections that are administered in the hatchery. Colostrum® Bio21 Liquid® is the first probiotic approved by the Ministry of Agriculture for in ovo inoculation.
WHAT IS THE BEST TIME TO USE CE PRODUCTS AND PROBIOTICS?
Como colonizador intestinal, o melhor momento para se administrar produtos de EC e probióticos é na planta de incubação, uma vez que pintos recém eclodidos, apresentam microbiota intestinal rudimentar. Como recolonizador intestinal, o uso de probióticos é altamente recomendado para aves jovens e adultas, de forma a restaurar a microbiota protetiva depois de qualquer situação que represente um desequilíbrio nos microrganismos do intestino. Pode ser devido a uma doença, estresse durante o transporte ou decorrente de manipulação, vacinação, muda forçada, etc. ou ainda, após o tratamento com antimicrobianos.
WHAT IS THE BEST AGE FOR PROBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION IN OVO?
The best age for in ovo inoculation is around the 18th day of incubation.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO ASSOCIATE PROBIOTICS WITH PERFORMANCE ENHANCING ANTIBIOTIC (PEAs)
Yes, it is possible, as long as the doses established by legislation are respected.
DO ANTIBIOTICS INTERFERE WITH THE PROBIOTIC EFFICIENCY?
Yes, therapeutic doses of antibiotics interfere with the probiotic’s efficiency. Therefore, the associated use is not recommended.
DO PROBIOTICS USED AS FEED ADDITIVES SURVIVE PELLETING?
Resistance to pelleting will depend on the probiotic composition, its production process and pelleting process. Probiotics with bacterial spores and/or coated during the production process are more thermo-resistant and therefore can undergo pelleting;
CAN PROBIOTICS BE USED IN FEEDS WITH ORGANIC ACIDS?
Yes, as long as the organic acids do not have formaldehyde in their composition.
CAN SPRAY PROBIOTICS BE PROVIDED WITH OTHER SPRAY VACCINES
Yes, they can be associated.
SALMONELLA GALLINARUM IS PART OF WHICH GROUP OF SALMONELLA - TYPHOID OR PARATYPHOID?
SG is part of the Typhoid infections.
WHAT IS THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF FT? WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS DISEASE?
The causative agent is Salmonella enterica subsespecie enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. The disease is characterized by being systemic, acute / chronic septicemia and by resulting in high mortality and morbidity, between 40-80% of the flock.
WHAT IS THE MAIN ROUTE OF SG TRANSMISSION / INFECTION?
The fecal-oral route is the main route of SG transmission / infection.
WHAT DIAGNOSTIC METHODS CAN BE USED TO IDENTIFY THE AGENT THAT CAUSES AT?
Bacteriological isolation of the etiologic agent is necessary through aseptically collected samples from infected tissues, preferably the liver and spleen of supposedly infected birds. It is worth mentioning that SG does not grow in the most modern chromogenic culture media (ex: XLD and XLT4) and in tetrathionate, which if used for isolation will lead to a false negative. After isolation, confirmation of the Gallinarum serotype must be carried out using biochemical or molecular techniques. Serological tests (ELISA and rapid whole-blood plate test =Pullorum disease antigen) do not detect Salmonella Gallinarum, they only indicate vaccination or infection by salmonella from group D.
ARE WHITE LAYING HENS RESISTANT TO SG INFECTION?
White laying hens are as infected as red laying hens. However, in general, clinical signs and mortality are less pronounced.
WHAT IS THE GREATEST SUSCEPTIBILITY OF COMMERCIAL BIRDS TO FOWL TYPHOID?
White layers are the most resistant and red layers are the most sensitive. Breeders´ susceptibility is closer to red laying hens.
HOW CAN FOWL TYPHOID BE PREVENTED IN COMMERCIAL FARMS?
Currently, only with active health surveillance, biosecurity and an adequate vaccination program with SG 9R strain live attenuated vaccines.
WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO DO DURING AN SG OUTBREAK TO DECREASE TRANSMISSION?
It is essential to remove birds sick, dying or dead as soon as possible, several times a day and eliminate them technically.
IS IT EFFECTIVE TO TREAT FOWL TYPHOID WITH ANTIBIOTICS?
No, because the infection is not eliminated with the use of antibiotics, only mortality is temporarily reduced.
HOW DOES SG IMMUNITY WORK?
Immunity is given through cellular immune response and, for this, it is essential to use live attenuated vaccines, such as SG 9R.
SHOULD I VACCINATE A HOUSE NEXT TO THE AFFECTED BUILDING WITH FT, EVEN IF THERE IS NO MORTALITY?
In a farm that suffers from a FT outbreak in a house and there is no adequate isolation between neighboring flocks or group of sheds, it is important to vaccinate all birds on the farm, even if they are white laying hens and have no symptoms.
CAN VACCINATION FOR SG BE DONE AFTER TREATMENT WITH ANTIBIOTICS?
Yes, it is possible, but the period of 7 days (ideally 14 days) after the end of the antibiotic medication must be respected to carry out the vaccination, regardless of the vaccination route used.
IS THERE A REVERSAL OF VIRULENCE OF THE SG 9R VACCINE?
The outbreaks that arise are caused by SG field strains. The studies indicate that there is no reversal of the virulence of the SG 9R vaccine. This strain has been used in all countries that suffer from FT for more than 50 years.
WHAT IS THE BEST DESTINATION FOR BIRDS KILLED BY SG?
The best way is to incinerate dead birds and not do the composting, as there is a risk of spreading the infection through insects, mites, domestic and wild animals.
ORGANIC ACIDS ARE EFFECTIVE TO CONTROL SG?
SG is not controlled with the use of organic acids, essential oils, prebiotics or probiotics. These are efficient tools for the paratyphoid infections that colonize the intestine and especially the cecum.
THE COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION (CE) SHOULD BE USED TO CONTROL SG?
The use of CE is very important to control the colonization of the intestine and the cecum by paratyphoid Salmonella and not by SG, since it does not live in the intestines of birds.
SHOULD THE FLOCKS OF POULTRY BREEDERS CONTAMINATED BY SG BE ELIMINATED?
As there is no efficient treatment for SG, to eradicate the problem, it is necessary to summarily eliminate the poultry breeders contaminated by SG.